Professor Lynne Chisholm with Theo van Dellen and Katharina Lunardon
University of Innsbruck (Austria)/University of Groningen (The Netherlands)
Abstract: Employee perceptions and practices towards work-related learning are shaped by a complex set of personal, social and organisational factors. The patterns may also differ between countries and cultures. In 2010, ten Asian and European member countries of ASEM-LLL Research Network 2 conducted a survey in selected sectors, using a standard instrument developed by the network members. The national reports and an initial synthesis report were presented at the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning (Hanoi, December 2010) and these are all available on the ASEM-LLL Hub website (www.dpu.dk/asem/researchnetworks/workplacelearning/ and www.dpu.dk/asem/events/vietnamlllforum2010/). In 2011-12, we have brought together the datasets from eight countries (four in Asia: China, Japan, Malaysia and Thailand; four in Europe: Austria, Latvia, Lithuania and The Netherlands) in order to deliver a comparative analysis. This contribution will present some key findings, setting these into the broader contexts of relevant research and policy.
Professor of Education and Generation at the University of Innsbruck (Austria), is an international specialist in education, training and youth research in comparative and intercultural context.
‘Europe and Asia: Common and Different Needs for Professionalisation in Adult Learning and Education?’
Abstract: The professionalisation of teachers is a big topic in Europe again, having noticed that the shift of paradigm from teaching to learning is neglecting important aspects of facilitating learning for adults. Within the European Union this discussion has some similarities in the member states, forced by programs and regquirements like European Qualifications Frameworks. Some projects on the needed competences of teachers in Adult Learning and Education and LLL were carried out. In Asia, the rapid development of ALE as means of development of societies lead to the need of qualifiying teachers and trainers as well as finding standards for competences. The huge number of adult learners in many Asian states, the focus on literacy and vocational training brings different questions for the qualification of teachers. Despite this there are some common lines and needs in Asia and Europe, which make it fruitful to combine research and political debates.
Director of the German Institute for Adult Education-Leibniz-Center for Lifelong learning professor at the University of Duisburg-Essen/Germany. His main research interests are International adult education, Policy of further education, Research of teaching and learning, Professionalisation in Adult Education.
‘Bridging Asian and European Ways of Learning in the New Globalisation’
Abstract: This keynote argues in favour of rediscovering the Asian Way of Learning and of a New Globalization bridging the Asian Way and conventional European (Western) paradigms.
In the new 21st century, as Asia (in particular China and India) rises, and in the aftermath of the global financial tsunami, the world is witnessing a new Asiatic mode of production. Internationalization is no longer just Europeanization or Americanization. The Asian Experience and the Asian Way will likely exert a growing impact on the ‘new’ globalization.
Indeed, if internationalization is really to promote a sense of globalness or cosmopolitanism, then it should be championed as a multidimensional process emphasizing ‘multi-ethnicity and multiculturalism’. Genuine globalization should be firmly grounded in cross-cultural fertilization and mutual learning rather than conformity and convergence to any ‘universal’ set of benchmarks that might deter or discourage diverse local features.
Both Asia and Europe have a long history and rich tradition of thought and scholarship. The European tradition of higher learning was grounded in the ideas of reason, moral and culture. Similarly, in China, Confucianism saw the way towards great learning as entailing ‘the formation of high moral character, enlightening the people (community), and ultimately achieving the ideal realm’. There is a lot to be mutually learnt between the Western (Europe) and Asian ways, bearing in mind, too, the diversity of European and Asian traditions and cultures. Bridging the Asian and European Ways of Learning should mark the features of the New Globalization of this century.
President of the Hong Kong Institute of Education